End Notes

General Chemistry: Principles, Patterns, and Applications, Saylor Academy, 2012. https://saylordotorg.github.io/text_general-chemistry-principles-patterns-and-applications-v1.0/s26-the-p-block-elements.html

[1] ADA News. My View: Searching for certainty in the absence of evidence, Christopher Smiley, DDS, September 16, 2020 https://www.ada.org/en/publications/ada-news/2020-archive/november/my-view-searching-for-certainty-in-the-absence-of-evidence

[1] Examples of organizations recommending the use of povidone-iodine to reduce the spread of COVID-19.

Aerosol Generating Procedures and their Mitigation in International Dental Guidance Documents – A Rapid Review 24 July 2020



ADA COVID-19 Risk Management Guidance, August 2020 (Australia)


[1] Articles we reviewed regarding povidone-iodine as a part of PPE for COVID:


Here is another paper on repurposing a 0.5% povidone-iodine to fight Covid19


Here are several other references: 

The povidone-iodine solution as SARS-CoV-2 prophylaxis for procedures of the upper aerodigestive tract a theoretical framework 


Iodine (PVP-I) mouth gargle/nasal spray may be the simplest and cost-effective therapeutic antidote for COVID-19 Frontier

July 2020



The use of Povidone Iodine nasal spray and mouthwash during the current COVID19 pandemic

April 2020


The use of Povidone Iodine nasal spray and mouthwash during the current COVID-19 pandemic may protect healthcare workers and reduce cross-infection.

March 27, 2020




[1] Clinical Trial – COVID-19: Povidone-Iodine Intranasal Prophylaxis in Front-line Healthcare Personnel and Inpatients


List of other clinical trials studying COVID-19 and povidone-iodine



[1] Peer-reviewed journal article

In Vitro Efficacy of a Povidone-Iodine Nasal Antiseptic for Rapid Inactivation of SARS-CoV-2

September 17, 2020


[1] Below are the products that I purchased for the nasal spray and gargle that meet the requirements recommended by the research I have done.


Link to the nasal atomizer spray bottles: 


The correct Betadine® solution. They make various products so it is important to get the correct one: 


This article has the recipe I outline below for mixing povidone iodine with water to achieve 0.5% solution:


UConn Health Researchers Find a Simple Oral Rinse Can Inactivate the COVID-19 Virus

June 18, 2020



One Formula for a 0.5% Solution 

This protocol is proposed for all suspected and confirmed COVID19 patients admitted in the hospital, as well as health care workers interacting with these patients as a form of PPE. Here is one formulation we found. 

Using of PVP-I (Povidone-Iodine) 10% as a possible safeguard against COVID.

Warning: It is contraindicated for people with an allergy to iodine, women who are pregnant, or people with active thyroid disease, and patients undergoing radioactive iodine therapy.

Caution: Betadine® contains iodine which may stain dentures, some dental work, and clothing. 

Supplies: Betadine 10% (or other PVP-I 10% product safe for oral use), distilled water, nasal atomizer, 1 mL and 10 mL oral syringes, 3 glasses

  1. Wash hands.
  2. It is important to prepare the solution immediately before using because the dilution we are going to do can change its properties over time.
  3. Put distilled water in one glass and betadine in another.
  4. Draw up 9.5 mL of distilled water and put it into the third glass.
  5. Draw up 5 mL betadine and put into a third glass, mix (result is a 0.5% PVP-I solution).
  6. Take out 1 ml of the diluted betadine and put it into the nasal atomizer (just using .6 ml of this 1 ml).
  7. That leaves 9 mL for the gargle.
  8. Put into mouth.
  9. For 30 seconds paint the inside of your mouth with the solution.
  10. For 30 seconds hold in back of throat or gargle.
  11. Then spit it out.
  12. For the nose spray 0.3 ml in each nostril – that is typically 2 sprays for most atomizers.
  13. Prime pump.
  14. Spray 2 sprays in each nostril.
  15. Breathe in gently.
  16. Wait 30 seconds before blotting or gently blowing your nose.


Avoid eating and drinking for 30 minutes afterward.

You can repeat this every 2-3 hours, up to 4 times a day.

[1]  The mask: 3M™ Half Facepiece Respirator Assembly 6291/07002(AAD), Medium, with 3M™ Particulate Filters 2091/07000(AAD), P100 is available from Amazon: 


They are available on Amazon and other vendors for about $30, and replacement filters are also available.

The mask comes in three sizes, but tech support at 3M (Cindy’s new best friend) indicated that unless you have an unusually large or small face, the medium will fit most people.


How to Put the Mask On 

You should be clean-shaven and have your hair pulled back to ensure a good seal.

Check your seal. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DzIDhYGnDIM


Check your fit.  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kzyV8s_wL1w

Clean after wearing. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aZgrMKODTqg

[1] CDC – Personal Protective Equipment: Questions and Answers – Respirators



[1] To cover the exhalation valve on the mask, you could cut a piece of a KN95 mask like this one: 


Or if you have received one of the masks I have sent out, you can cut one up to make the filter.

[1] American Airlines becomes the final major US carrier to ban masks with valves. Zach Griff, Aug 13, 2020.


[1] Did Dr. Fauci Recommend Wearing Eye Shields, Goggles For Covid-19 Coronavirus?, Bruce Y. Lee. Jul 30, 2020.



[1] Polycarbonate protective goggles: 


There are multiple available options for polycarbonate goggles, but they should cover the eyes and seal around the face. Also, if you wear glasses, you need to get a pair that fits over your glasses—you will definitely want to see peoples’ reactions to your safety apparel!